Tour of pc
The basic components of all personal computers are the same: memory, circuit board and storage. It turns out that nearly every digital device uses the same set of components. Therefore, examining a personal computer will provide insight into the structure of many digital devices. Let’s now take a tour of personal computers and learn how they work.
Processing data – The cpu
Most computing devices follow similar architecture, as mentioned above. This architecture’s core is the central processing unit (or CPU). The CPU is the brain of the device. The CPU executes the commands from the software and returns the results to be acted on.
The first CPUs were small circuit boards that had limited functionality. A CPU can be found on one chip today and performs a wide range of functions. Two main manufacturers of personal computer CPUs are Intel and Advanced Micro Devices.
In hertz, a CPU’s speed (or clock time) is measured. One cycle per second is a hertz. We can see that a hertz is one cycle per second using the binary prefixes. A kilohertz, also known as kHz, is one thousand cycles per second, while a megahertz is one million cycles every second, and a gigahertz is one billion cycles each second. Moore’s Law explains that the CPU’s processing power has been increasing at an incredible rate. Many CPU chips contain multiple processors, which gives them a faster clock speed. These chips are known as quad-core (four processors) and dual-core (2 processors), which increase the processing power of a CPU by allowing multiple CPUs to be used.
Computers get faster each year, as we all know. We are often unsure if we should buy the latest smartphone, tablet, or computer model because it will not be the most advanced next week. This phenomenon was recognized by Gordon Moore, one of the founders and CEO of Intel. He noted that microprocessor transistor count had been increasing every year. Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors in a chip will increase by at least twice every two years. This idea has been extended to mean that computing power will double every 2 years at the same price. This can be viewed another way: the price of computing power will drop by half every two years. Despite being predicted to die by many, Moore’s Law has been in place for more than forty years (see the figure below).
Someday we will reach the limit of Moore’s Law and cannot shrink circuits further. Engineers will still find ways to improve performance.
The motherboard is the main circuit board of the computer. The motherboard houses the CPU, memory, storage, and other components. Depending on how small or large the computer is, motherboards can come in different sizes and shapes. Modern motherboards include many integrated components such as sound and video processing. Previously, these components were required to be separate.
The motherboard is responsible for much of the bus (the bus term refers to the electrical connections between different computer components). The speed of the computer is determined by its bus. It determines how fast data can be transferred and how many data bits can be moved simultaneously.
Memory of random access
The computer loads information from the hard drive into its working memory when it starts up. Random-access memory (RAM) can transfer data faster than the hard drive. RAM is used to process any program you have running on your computer. A minimum amount of RAM is required to allow a computer’s operation to be efficient. In most cases, more RAM will make the computer run faster. RAM also has the characteristic of being “volatile.” RAM can store data for as long as it receives power. Any data that is stored in RAM will be lost if it is turned off.
A dual inline memory module (DIMM) is used to install RAM on a personal computer. The motherboard determines the type of DIMM that can be installed on a computer. Moore’s Law explains that DIMM speeds and memory have dramatically increased over the years.
The RAM is used for working memory, but the computer still needs storage space for long-term data. A hard drive is the most common storage device for data long-term in personal computers today. The hard drive is where data is kept when the computer’s turned off and from which it can be retrieved when it is turned back on. It is also known as a hard drive. A hard disk is a collection of disks in a hard-metal case. A floppy disk, as discussed below, was a removable hard disk that was, at times, flexible or “floppy” in some cases.
Solid state device
The solid-state drive (SSD) is a relatively new component becoming more popular in personal computers. The SSD serves the same purpose as a hard drive: long-term storage. SSDs are faster than spinning disks because they use flash memory instead.
Solid-state drives tend to be more expensive than hard drives. Flash memory is lighter and more efficient than traditional hard drives, but they are also much faster. SSDs are used primarily in portable computers. They are lighter and more efficient. The two storage technologies can be combined in some computers. One uses the SSD to store the most frequently accessed data (such as the operating system), while the other uses the hard drive for less frequently accessed data. As with all technology, Moore’s Law is driving solid-state drives’ speed and capacity up and decreasing their prices. This will enable them to continue to grow in the years ahead.
Personal computers can also use removable storage media, in addition to fixed storage components. You can take your data with the removable media. As with all digital technologies, these media are smaller and more powerful over time. Floppy disks were used in early computers. They could be inserted into the computer’s disk drive. Data was kept on a magnetic disc inside an enclosure. These disks were 8″ in the early days and 3 1/2 inches later.
A new type of portable storage technology was developed around the turn of this century: the USB flash drive. (Learn more about the USB port later). The device connects to the universal serial bus (USB) connector. This connector became standard in all personal computers starting in the late 1990s. Flash drive storage capacities have increased dramatically over the years. They ranged from eight megabytes at first to 64 gigabytes today.
Personal computers were initially stand-alone devices. Data could be brought into or removed from the computer using removable media such as the floppy disc. In the middle of the 1980s, however, organizations started to realize the benefits of connecting computers via a digital network. Personal computers were required to be able to connect to these networks. Initially, you could do this by attaching an expansion card to your computer. However, most personal computers now have a network port. Many personal computers began to include wireless networking capabilities as wireless technology became more popular in the 2000s. Chapter 5 will discuss digital communication technologies.
Input and exput
A personal computer must be able to receive input from users and deliver output. These input and outgoing devices are connected to the computer through various connections ports. They are usually part of the motherboard and can be accessed outside the computer case. Each type of output device was assigned a specific port in early personal computers. These ports have become more standardized over time, as their configurations have evolved. A USB port is used to connect almost all devices to a computer. The original 1996 introduction of this port type has seen a significant increase in its capabilities in terms of data transfer speed and power supply.
Some input and output devices can connect to the computer using Bluetooth, a wireless technology standard that allows for data exchange over USB. Bluetooth, which uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances, was invented in the 1990s. Bluetooth can transmit data over a distance of between 100 and 150 feet. Bluetooth communication requires that both the personal computer and the connected device have Bluetooth communication chips installed.
Personal computers require components that enable the user to input data. The first computers had a keyboard that allowed the user to input data and select items from a menu. The mouse was made a standard part of computers with the introduction of the graphical user interface. Although these two components remain the primary input device for a personal computer’s operating system, many variations have been introduced over time with different degrees of success. Many new devices use touch screens to enter data.
Additional input devices, other than the keyboard and mouse, are becoming more popular. Scanners enable users to enter documents in a computer as either images or text. Microphones can also be used to record audio and give voice commands. You can record video with webcams or other types of cameras and participate in video chat sessions.
Also, output devices are crucial. Displays are the most obvious output device. They visually represent the computer’s current state. A personal computer may support multiple displays or connect to larger-format displays like a projector or large-screen television. Other output devices include speakers that output audio and printers that produce printed output.
What hardware component contribute to my computer speed?
Many factors determine the speed of a computer, including hardware as well as software. Speed is increased by allowing electrons to travel shorter distances to complete a circuit. Engineers have been trying to find ways to make these circuits smaller and put more circuits on the same chip since creating the first CPU in the 1970s. This work paid off: computing devices have been faster ever since.
The CPU, motherboard, RAM and hard disk are the hardware components that increase the speed of personal computers. These components can usually be replaced with faster, more powerful parts. You can speed up your computer by simply adding more RAM. Below is a table that shows how each contributes to a computer’s speed. To make a computer faster, you can also upgrade hardware.
Other Computing Devices
Personal computers are intended to be used for general purposes. It can solve many problems. Many of the components of the personal computer are now integrated into devices that were previously purely mechanical. There has been a shift in the definition of a computer. Since the invention of personal computers, people have been searching for ways to transport them. We will be looking at several devices that reflect the most recent trends in personal computing.
Compaq Computer Corporation created the first portable personal computer that was commercially profitable in 1983. The Compaq PC, weighing 28 pounds, was not portable by today’s standards. It could only be carried around, as it was only 28 pounds. The Compaq PC was not a laptop. It was designed to be carried around in a bag and then placed on its side for use. The Compaq’s portability was not the only reason it was successful. It was compatible with the IBM PC’s software, which was the standard in business.
Portable computing has improved over the years, with notebook and laptop computers emerging. A lighter, a more portable computer is now possible thanks to the clamshell design that can be carried around and weighs 4-6 pounds. It also runs on batteries. The most recent technological advances have led to a new type of laptop, which is rapidly becoming the standard. These laptops are lightweight and portable and consume less power than larger models. This is evident in the MacBook Air, which weighs just 3.0 pounds and measures 0.68 inches in thickness.
As more people and organizations move their computing to the Internet more often, laptops that use “the Cloud” for their data and applications storage are becoming more popular. These laptops are extremely lightweight because they don’t require any hard drives. The Samsung Chromebook is a good example of such a laptop, sometimes called a netbook.
In 1973, the first modern mobile phone was created. It was a brick-shaped phone that weighed in at almost four thousand dollars. Mobile phones have come a long way since then. They are now affordable and smaller. Mobile phones have become more like small computers as they evolved. Smartphones have many of the same characteristics that personal computers, including an operating system and memory. The IBM Simon was introduced in 1994 as the first smartphone.
The iPhone was introduced by Apple in January 2007. The iPhone’s intuitive interface and ease of use made it a huge success immediately and set the stage for future smartphones. The iPhone ran on iOS, an operating system that allowed for small computers to have touch-screen interfaces. The first Android phone, which featured similar functionality, was released in 2008.
A tablet computer uses a touch screen for primary input. It is small and lightweight enough to be easily carried around. Tablet computers are usually small and portable, with no keyboard. They can be stored in a rectangular case. In the early 2000s, the first tablet computers were created. They used a pen to input data. These tablets were small, portable personal digital assistants (PDAs) that could be carried around to large, full-sized 14-inch tablets. The earliest tablets were based on an older operating system such as Windows or Linux.
These first tablet devices were, in large part, commercial failures. The iPad was introduced by Apple in January 2010. It marked the beginning of a new era in tablet computing. The iPad was designed to be used as a primary input device and not a pen. Apple decided to use iOS instead of the operating systems of their laptop and desktop computers. The iPad’s user interface was identical to the iPhone’s, which made it easy for consumers to feel at ease and helped drive sales. The iPad is the benchmark for tablet computing. Computer manufacturers started to create tablets with operating systems specifically designed for mobile devices after the iPad’s success.
MOBILE COMPUTING: THE RISE OF MOBILE COMPUTING
The business world is seeing a significant impact from mobile computing. Each year, the use of tablets and smartphones is increasing at double-digit levels. In an April 2013 report, Gartner Group estimated that more than 1.7 million smartphones would be shipped in the US, compared to 340,000 personal computers. Nearly 200,000 tablets are expected to ship in 2013. The report predicts that almost 200,000 tablet computers will ship in 2013.
Computing technology is now being integrated into everyday products, along with the advances in computers. Computing technology is improving the capabilities of everyday products, from automobiles to refrigerators and aeroplanes. It is also adding capabilities that were previously considered science fiction. These are just two examples of how computing technology is being integrated into everyday products.